How To Incorporate A Company In India

You might have noticed that many of us often talk or plan about starting our own business someday. Now, suppose that particular day has finally arrived when you are ready to start up your business. Well, what will you do now, you might have figured out your perfect business idea but how will you start it as a business model? Unless, you have the complete information about the incorporating a company as per the Law of the Land, it is not legally possible for you to run your dream business. Therefore, with this article we shall cover the various norms of incorporating a company for the Indian Residents as well as the NRIs. The purpose of this article is to take a deep dive into the A to Z of a Company Incorporation in India, ensuring you leave no crucial step un-taken. From the very first spark of your business idea to its official registration, this write-up shall equip you with the knowledge and confidence to navigate the process with ease!


India offers two major legal frameworks for anyone who is looking forward to incorporate a company in the country, they are – The Companies Act, 2013, guiding various company types like public, private, and one-person ventures; and the Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008, for professional firms seeking similar legal protection. The path to incorporation involves choosing the best company type for your vision, crafting a unique and legally sound name, and drafting key documents like the Memorandum and Articles of Association. Digital signatures, MCA portal filings, and obtaining PAN and TAN for your company – these are the milestones along the way.

With a successful incorporation, your venture gets ready to set sail in the vast ocean of the business however; you need to remember that it is just the beginning. Building a thriving company requires unwavering dedication, strategic planning, and a resolute spirit. Nevertheless, with this knowledge and a legally established entity as your compass, you are well equipped to navigate the exhilarating and the challenging waters of the Indian entrepreneurship. So, raise your sails, ignite your passion, and let your business voyage commence!

Primary Requirements of Incorporating a Company in India

Well, in order to incorporate a company in India, there are some basic requirements, which are needed to be fulfilled; some of these primary requirements are mentioned as follows –

Choose a Company Type

A company type can be – Private Limited Company (PLC), Public Limited Company (PLC), One Person Company (OPC), or Limited Liability Partnership (LLP). Each type has their own specific requirements and regulations.

Choose a Company Name & File for Approval

Choose a name for the company, which follows the naming guidelines, and is available for registration. The application for the proposed company’s name is submitted to the Registrar of Companies (RoC). The approval is obtained from the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA).

Digital Signature Certificate (DSC)

Obtaining a Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) is a vital step for company incorporation. All proposed directors must have their digital signatures, as many documents are filed online!

Director Identification Number (DIN)

Directors must apply for Director Identification Number (DIN), which is a unique identification number issued by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.

Memorandum of Association (MoA) & Articles of Association (AoA)

Drafting the Memorandum of Association (MoA) as well as the Articles of Association (AoA), which outline the company’s objectives and rules governing its internal management.

SPICe+ Form

It is required to file the SPICe+ form on the MCA portal as well, along with required documents like MoA, AoA, affidavits, and fees!

Filing Incorporation Documents

Submitting the required documents, including the MoA, AoA, and a declaration stating compliance with all legal requirements.

Certificate of Incorporation (COI)

Once the Registrar of Companies (RoC) is satisfied with the documents, a Certificate of Incorporation (COI) is issued, marking the official registration of the company!

Requirements for NRIs to Incorporate a Company in India

NRIs can incorporate a company in India by following the same process as the residents. However, they need to comply with the FEMA (Foreign Exchange Management Act) regulations. The shareholding pattern, investment limits, and repatriation of funds are governed by the FEMA guidelines.

One Person Company (OPC) or Private Limited Company

NRIs can incorporate either a one-person company (Sole Proprietorship) or a private limited company (Multiple Shareholders).

Digital Signature Certificate (DSC) & Director Identification Number (DIN)

NRIs need a DSC and DIN to file electronic documents with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA). They can obtain these through designated agencies in India or online if they have an Aadhaar card.

Registered Office Address

NRIs need a physical office address in India for their company. They can appoint a nominee director or use a registered office address service provider!

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Regulations

NRIs may need to comply with specific FDI regulations depending on the nature of their business and the amount of investment.

Taxation Details for the Indian Residents

The Indian Residents who had successfully incorporated a company in the country must be aware of the taxation details, which are mentioned as follows –

Company Tax

The corporate tax rate in India is currently 30% (plus surcharge and cess) for domestic companies with annual turnover exceeding ₹400 crore. For companies with turnover below ₹400 crore, the tax rate is 25%.

Personal Income Tax (for Directors)

Directors of Indian companies are liable for personal income tax on their salary and dividends received. The tax rate varies depending on the individual’s income slab!

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

Most businesses in India are subject to GST, a tax levied on the supply of goods and services. The tax rate varies depending on the type of goods or services provided.

Taxation Details for the NRIs

Just like the Indian Residents, the NRIs too need to be aware of certain taxation details, if they had successfully incorporated a company in India; some of these taxation details are as follows –

Company Tax

NRIs who own companies in India are subject to the same corporate tax rates as the Indian residents.

Personal Income Tax

NRIs are liable to pay personal income tax on income earned in India, including dividends, interest, and capital gains. The tax rate for NRIs is generally higher than for residents!

Double Taxation Treaties

India has Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAs) with several countries including the United States of America (USA) to prevent double taxation on income earned by the NRIs. For Indians working or investing in the United States, and vice versa, this was a harsh reality until Double Taxation Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) stepped in.

Signed in the year 1989 and amended in 2016, the India-USA DTAA acts as a bridge, alleviating the burden of paying taxes on the same income in both countries. Here is how it works –

  • Reduced Tax Rates: The DTAA sets lower tax rates for certain income categories like dividends, interest, and royalties. This essentially translates to paying less tax overall.
  • Tax Relief Mechanisms: Provisions like the “tie-breaker rule” and “residence-based” taxation prevent double taxation by clarifying which country has primary taxing rights!
  • Information Exchange: Both countries actively share tax information, preventing loopholes and promoting transparency.

Beyond the immediate financial benefits, the DTAA fosters economic cooperation and encourages cross-border investments. For individuals, it simplifies reporting and reduces compliance burdens, allowing them to focus on building wealth instead of battling tax complexities. The India-USA DTAA acts as a crucial bridge, transforming what could be a double-taxation nightmare into a smooth path to cross-border financial success!

Details Upon The Company’s Address

The registered office address must be declared at the time of incorporation. All the official communications shall be carried out through this address. It can be changed later by following the proper procedures and communicating to the Registrar of Companies (RoC).

Registered Office Address

Every company in India must have a registered office address, which is the official address for communication with the government and other stakeholders!

Operational Address

The Company can have a separate operational address where it conducts its day-to-day business activities.


In conclusion, incorporating a company in India is not simply a procedural checklist; it is an exhilarating leap into the boundless potential of entrepreneurship. For Indian residents and NRIs alike, it is a chance to break free from the conventional, to weave passion into purpose, and to build a legacy that transcends borders. The journey may seem daunting at times, with legal documents, bureaucratic hurdles, and a sea of regulations to navigate. However, you must remember that amidst the complexities lies the undeniable thrill of creation, the satisfaction of carving your own path, and the joy of influencing lives through your unique vision.

As you embark on this venture, let the spirit of innovation be your compass. Embrace the diverse tapestry of India’s entrepreneurial landscape, learn from the triumphs and tribulations of those who have come before you, and forge your own path with unwavering determination. Remember, you are not alone. A vast network of mentors, investors and support systems awaits, ready to guide and empower you through every step. Moreover, beyond the business itself, take pride in the ripple effect your venture creates. Every job you generate strengthens the community, every innovative solution that you offer improves the lives, and every obstacle that you overcome paves the way for those who follow. As you build your company, you are not just adding to the economic fabric of India; you are contributing to the nation’s collective spirit of self-reliance and ambition!

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