How to Create In-Text Citations in APA 7 – Inkerspress
APA Citation Basics
When using APA format, comply with the author-date approach of in-text citation. This way that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source must appear in the text, like, for example, (Jones, 1998). One entire reference for every source needs to appear in the reference list on the end of the paper.
If you’re referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only need to make reference to the writer and year of the book and not the web page number in your in-text reference.
On the other hand, in case you are directly quoting or borrowing from another work, you have to consist of the page number on the end of the parenthetical citation. Use the abbreviation “p.” (for one page) or “pp.” (for more than one page) before listing the page number(s). Use an en dash for page ranges. For example, you may write (Jones, 1998, p. 199) or (Jones, 1998, pp. 199–201). This information is reiterated below.
Regardless of how they may be referenced, all sources which are cited in the text need to appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
In APA, in-text citations are inserted in the frame of your research paper to in brief file the source of your information. Brief in-text citations factor the reader to more complete facts in the reference list on the end of the paper.
- In-text citations consist of the last name of the writer accompanied by a comma and the publication year enclosed in parentheses: (Smith, 2007).
- If you are quoting immediately from the web page number must be included, if given. If you are paraphrasing the web page number isn’t always required.
- If the writer’s name isn’t given, then use the first word or phrases of the title. Follow the identical formatting that was used in the title, including italics: (Naturopathic, 2007).
If you’re directly quoting from a work, you will want to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded through “p.” for a single page and “pp.” for a span of more than one page, with the page numbers separated by a dash).
You can introduce the citation with a signal phrase that consists of the author’s last name accompanied by the date of publication in parentheses.
According to Jones (1998), “students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199).
If you do not include the author’s name in the text of the sentence, place the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.
Place direct quotations that are forty words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and leave out citation marks. Start the citation on a new line, indented half inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would start a new paragraph. Type the complete citation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any next paragraph in the citation half of inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout, however do not upload an additional blank line before or after it. The parenthetical citation needs to come after the closing punctuation mark.
QUOTATIONS FROM SOURCES WITHOUT PAGES
Direct quotations from sources that do not include pages should not reference a page number. Instead, you can reference another logical identifying element: a paragraph, a chapter number, a section number, a table number, or something else. Older works (like spiritual texts) also can contain special location identifiers like verse numbers. In short: choose a substitute for page numbers that makes sense for your source.
Jones (1998) found a variety of causes for student dissatisfaction with prevailing citation practices (paras. 4–5).
If you are paraphrasing a concept from some other work, you only need to make reference to the writer and year of guide in your in-text reference and might leave out the page numbers. APA guidelines, however, do inspire such as a page range for a summary or paraphrase while it will assist the reader locate the information in a longer work.
According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).